The temporomandibular joint is one of the most used in the human body.
It is used many times a day when talking, chewing, yawning
What is TMJ?
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is located in front of the ear. It consists of the bones of the lower jaw and the temporal bone. At the same time, its muscles perform many functions: speech, swallowing, chewing, etc. In addition, they connect the skull with the lower jaw. Muscles and joints allow a person to open and close his/her mouth. This joint is also responsible for movement of the lower jaw to the right, left, forward, down and up.
Dysfunction of TMJ is a functional pathology of the temporomandibular joint caused by muscular, occlusive and spatial disorders. According to statistics, about 70% of dentists’ patients have signs of TMJ dysfunction. Very often, the destruction and loss of teeth can cause malfunction of the jaw joint causing discomfort during eating and pain in the muscles and / or in the area of the jaw joint. Prosthetics, implantation and restoration of teeth, without the participation of a good gnathologist, can lead to a worsening of the situation, increased pain and conversion of TMJ disease into a severe pathology. Therefore, it is required to treat the cause of TMJ disease and not the consequence.
70% of dentists' patients have signs of TMJ dysfunction
Causes of TMJ dysfunction
There are several main theories of TMJ dysfunction occurrence according to which:
causes of TMJ dysfunction are associated with dental and maxillary disorders such as: defects in the dentition, abnormal abrasion of teeth, jaw injuries, abnormal bite, incorrect prosthetics, various anomalies of the teeth and jaws
causes of TMJ dysfunction are associated with disorders of the jaw muscles: tonic spasm, mechanical overload of the masticatory muscles, etc. caused by one-sided type of chewing, bruxism, professions associated with a large speech load which ultimately leads to chronic microtrauma of TMJ elements
causes of TMJ dysfunction are initiated by changes in the central nervous system, e.g., excessive neuropsychic or physical stress accompanied by dysfunction of the muscles and kinematics of the joint
Appointment to the doctor
Symptoms of TMJ dysfunction
A combination of symptoms is found in each pathology but most of them are universal:
aching or throbbing pain in the joint area which is often confused with pain in the ears
sudden violation of the dentition closure which was not previously observed
clicking or crunching sounds with any activity of the jaw, sometimes they become audible even to others
migraine and vertigo
stiffness of joint movements, limited amplitude, inability to fully open the mouth
fatigue of the muscles involved
discomfort in the cervical or brachial region
“jamming” of the joint, when, with each attempt to open the mouth, a person has to find a successful position of the jaw
tinnitus or congestion, hearing impairment
Frequent companions of TMJ dysfunction are depression, insomnia, snoring and other ailments that seem to be unrelated to this pathology
The most common emergency diseases
- dislocated joint 20% 20%
- arthritis 25% 25%
- arthrosis 10% 10%
- ankylosis 5% 5%
- musculo-articular dysfunction 35% 35%
Treatment of TMJ dysfunction
In our clinic, the dentist-gnatologist performs the most accurate diagnosis and high-quality comprehensive treatment aimed at the correct operation of the jaw joint as well as is engaged in prosthetics or restoration of teeth taking into account the structure of the joints, jaws, skull and muscle condition.
Methods of examination of patients with TMJ dysfunction include the study of complaints, analysis of plaster models of the jaws, orthopantomography, X-ray and tomography of the temporomandibular joint, electromyography and etc. The treatment of TMJ dysfunction is carried out taking into account the reasons and may consist in grinding supercontact teeth, correct prosthetics, bite correction, wearing a mouth guard or articular splint, performing surgical treatment.
Maksutov Alibi Aynadinovich Expert opinion
Modern dentistry is aimed at high precision, aesthetics and functionality of the entire dental system. Neuro-muscular dentistry studies the function of the entire dentition which includes the teeth, periodontal, masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joints (TMJ). Occlusion disturbance leads to impaired function of chewing, swallowing, breathing and dysfunction of TMJ, which in turn can lead to spinal curvature, changes in posture, sleep apnea, etc. Therefore, it is extremely important that the restorations were not only beautiful but also functional!